Coffee History Myth And Legend

The etymology of the Coffee History

Prior to further explore the coffee history helps us start with the etymology of the word “coffee” itself. According to William H. Ukers in her book All About Coffee (1922) the word “coffee” began to enter into the European languages around the 1600s. The word was adapted from the Arabic “Qahwa”. Or maybe not directly from an Arabic word but through the Turkish term “kahveh”.

In Arabic the term “Qahwa” not intended for the plant’s name but refers to the name of the drink. In fact there are some records that mention the term originally referred to one type of drink of wine (wine). There is no clear explanation since when began to be used to refer to coffee drinks. But experts believe the word “Qahwa” is used to describe a drink made from beans brewed with hot water.
Still according Ukers, the origin of the word “coffee” scientifically began to be discussed in the Symposium on The Etymology of the Word Coffee in 1909. In this symposium is generally the word “coffee” is believed to refer to the term in Arabic “Qahwa”, containing meaning “strong”.

Abyssinia

There are also those who deny the term derived from Arabic coffee. According to them the term coffee comes from a coffee plant originated namely Abyssinia. Adapted from “kaffa” the name of a town in the Shoa, in the South of Southwestern Abissynia. This assumption is indisputable because it is not supported by strong evidence. Other evidence suggests the coffee fruit in the city called by another name ie “bun”. In the records of the Arab “bun” or “bunn” is used to refer not drink coffee beans.
From the Arabic term “Qahwa” adapted into other languages such as Turkish “kahve”, Dutch “koffie”, French “café”, the Italian “caffè”, English “coffee”, Chinese “kia-fey “Japanese” kehi “, and the Malay language” kawa “. In fact almost all of the terms for coffee in various languages have a sound similarity to an Arabic term.

Indonesia Etimology

Especially for the case of Indonesia, it is likely the word “coffee” is adapted from the Arabic term through the Dutch “koffie”. Allegations which is logical because the Dutch who first established plantations in Indonesia. But do not rule out the words adapted directly from Arabic or Turkish. Given the many parties in Indonesia which has a relationship with the Arabs before the Europeans came.

Anyone who tries to trace the origin of the coffee may be exposed to two very famous legend of Coffee History. That is the Coffee History story of “Si Kaldi and his goats” and the story “Ali bin Omar al Shadhili”. Both of these legends recounted the early humans to process the coffee fruit.

Kaldi and his goats

This Coffee History is taken from the legend that developed in Ethiopia. Call him Syahdan are the owner of a goat named Kaldi. On one day the Kaldi found his goats hyperactive, jumping around like he was dancing. After the investigation was the goat had been eating red berries from a tree that had not been identified. With curiosity the Kaldi tried the fruit. After eating he found himself behaving like a goat.

Si Kaldi reported this incident to a monk. The friar interested in the story of Kaldi and he tried the fruit. The effect of the monk felt like getting extra power, he can awake at night without being sleepy to pray. Because the fruit flavor is slightly bitter, other monks began to cultivate it by roasting and brewing the fruit. By that time coffee is nice to be a drink to provide extra strength and sleepy drive.

Coffee history

Ali bin Omar al Shadhili

It is said that in the city of Mocha, Yemen, living a physician at once devout Sufi, the name Ali bin Omar al Shadhili. Omar is famous as a powerful healer who can cure the disease by combining medical treatment and prayer. However lunge Omar disliked by the local authorities. By various intrigues Omar rumored league with the devil to cure his patients. Finally, the urban community Mocha expel Omar out of the city.

Driven out of the city, Omar took refuge in a cave he found on the way. He began to starve and found the red berries. Omar eat the fruit to ward off hunger. Because it tastes bitter, he began to cultivate the fruit by way of roasting and boiling. Even though the coffee beans that have been processed Omar still could not be eaten. He could only drink the water. Unexpectedly water he drank provide extra strength. Long story short, steeping water made Omar became famous. Many people who asked him to Omar. To the phenomenon of sound ruler of the city. Omar then called back to stay in the city.

Coffee History for culture in the early days

The oldest written document about the coffee is found in the records is Al Razi (850-922), a Muslim scientist who is also a medical expert. He mentions a beverage whose characteristics are similar to coffee as bunshum. Collaborated with Ibn Sina (980-1037), she describes something that can be brewed beans and efficacious cure a stomach ailment. All information given Avicenna refers to the characteristics of the coffee that we know today. He calls these beverages bunshum and seeds with the name of a bun.

Coffee became an important economic commodity in the Islamic world. The coffee drinks are very popular among pilgrims in Makkah, although had several times declared a prohibited beverage. The pilgrims drink coffee to stay awake when worship at night.
The widespread popularity of coffee in the Turkish Ottoman Caliphate. In tell drink coffee became the main dish at every celebration in Istanbul. In this age of coffee began like those of Europe.In the early 1600s the merchants in Venice to buy coffee from the port of Mocha in Yemen. From this place to spread to other European regions. Then in 1668 the coffee began to cross the Atlantic and arrive in New York, then still be kooni Netherlands.

Coffee History cultivation

The origin of the plant

Almost all the literature that discusses the Coffee History approve origin coffee plants from Abyssinia, a region in Africa that used to exist under the Ethiopian Empire. Currently the region includes the country’s territory Ethiopia and Eritrea. In the early days all the coffee plants cultivated a type of arabica coffee (Coffea arabica).

Coffee plants were taken from Abyssinia and start to cultivated year 575 in Yemen. At this time, the development of coffee cultivation has been slow. Coffee beans only Arab trade outside the port of Mocha in Yemen.
Arab traders tried to protect the exclusivity to require boiling the coffee beans first. With the hope of coffee beans can not be grown into plants.

Endemic to South Asia and Southeast Asia

The Effort to isolate the coffee beans by the Arab traders were unsuccessful. In 1616 the Dutch managed to bring the coffee plants from the port of Mocha to Holland, Netherlands. In 1658 the Dutch began trying to cultivate coffee plants in Sri Lanka. There were no reports of plant cultivation is reaping great success.

In addition to passing the harbor there are many other possible entrances traffic trade coffee beans. One of them through the journey of the pilgrims who want pilgrimage to Mecca and Medina. In 1695 Baba Budan, a pilgrim from India, managed to bring the coffee beans out of the Arab productive. He cultivated coffee plants in Chikmagalur, India in the south.

In 1969 the Dutch brought coffee from Malabar, India, to Java. The coffee plant originated from seeds brought from Yemen to Malabar but failed to grown in Kadawung cause flood. Three years later the Dutch brought coffee back cuttings from Malabar. Efforts this time success. Coffee grows well in plantations in Java. The results of the production shift the dominance of Yemeni coffee. Even when the Netherlands became the largest coffee exporter in the world.

Deployment to the US and surrounding islands

In began in 1706 when the Dutch brought coffee plant from Java to the botanical gardens in Amsterdam. From Amsterdam coffee plants which known as Typica cultivar brought to Suriname as a gift to King Louis XIV in Paris.

Another street coffee plants into the United States via the island of Bourbon, now La Reunion. Plants derived from seeds given by Sultan Yemeni envoy to King Louis XIV in 1715. France received 60 year off the seed grains of coffee in Bourbon. These seeds then spread to the French colonies in America and other regions. The coffee plant known as Bourbon cultivars.

coffee history in Indonesia

The Coffee History in Indonesia began in 1696 when the Dutch brought coffee from Malabar, India, to Java. They cultivate the coffee plant in kedawung, a farm located near Batavia. A second attempt made in 1699 to bring the coffee tree cuttings from Malabar. In 1706 the coffee samples produced from plants in Java. The Samples sent to Holland to be checked at the Botanical Gardens Amsterdam and Result is very good quality. So the coffee plant using the seed for the entire plantation which developed in Indonesia. The Netherlands also expand the area under coffee cultivation to Sumatra, Sulawesi, Bali, East and other islands in Indonesia.

In 1878 tragedy heartbreaking. Almost all existing coffee plantations in Indonesia, especially in low-lying broken leaf rust disease or HEMILEIA VASTATRIX (HV). At that time all the coffee crop in Indonesia are Arabica (Coffea arabica). Until a few years, replacing Liberika coffee arabica coffee plantations in the lowlands. In the European market the coffee Liberika then priced the same as arabica. But apparently the coffee plants Liberika also experienced the same thing, broken attacked by leaf rust. Then in 1907 the Dutch brought other species that robusta coffee (Coffea canephora). This time successful attempt, to date robusta coffee plantations in the lowlands could survive.

coffee history

Coffee History when Drinks Forbidden

Travel coffee into a drink of the most popular inhabitants of the earth is not smooth. There was a period in which the coffee into a product whose presence “forbidden”. In 1511, because of the effect of stimulation caused, banned by the conservative and orthodox priests in religious assemblies in Mecca, Saudi Arabia. However, due to the popularity of this beverage, the ban removed in 1524 on the orders of Sultan Selim I of the Ottoman Turks. In Cairo, Egypt, a similar ban was ratified in 1532, where the coffee shop and the coffee warehouse closed.

A century later, in 1656, Wazir Ottoman Empire issued a ban on open coffeehouses. Not only forbids coffee, but punish those who drink coffee with flogging on the first offense. In Italy, the priests forbade his coffee and said it included coffee drinks Muslim sultans to replace the wine. Not only prohibits, but also punish those who drink coffee. The prohibition also applied in Russia, although he would be “discriminatory” and maintain the dignity of the coffee aristocracy.
Post-independence Indonesia in 1945, the entire Dutch coffee plantation in Indonesia on nationalization. Since then the Netherlands will no longer be a supplier of the world’s coffee.

Trade coffee beans

Four types of coffee Arabica , robusta, Liberika and excelsa comes from three species of coffee plants. Coffea arabica produce Arabica Coffee and Canephora Coffea robusta plants produced. While Liberika and produced by the plant Coffea excelsa Liberica, exactly Coffea Liberica var. Liberica for coffee Liberika and Coffea Liberica var. Dewevrei for Excelsa coffee.

Treading the 18th century, Europeans began producing coffee outside Arabia. Until 1720 the Netherlands shift Yemen as world coffee exporter. Dutch products obtained from coffee plantations in Java and the surrounding islands, now part of Indonesia. Indonesia became the world’s largest coffee producer almost a century. In 1830, Indonesia’s position as the largest coffee producer Brazil shifted.

The modern era – Trade coffee plants

The trading volume of coffee beans from the year 1920 to 2008. (Graph: S Oestreich-Janzen, 2013). Nowadays in the worldwide. Brazil, Vietnam, Colombia, Indonesia and Ethiopia are among the countries most biggest coffee producer. See the 10 largest coffee producer in the world. Brazil is the most dominant coffee producer. Total coffee production of coffee managed about a third of total world coffee production. In 2015, Brazil produces about 2.5 million tons of coffee beans. Meanwhile, in 2015 Indonesia ranks fourth coffee producer. According to the Association of Indonesian Coffee Exporters (GAEKI), about 83% of Indonesia’s coffee production of robusta and 17% arabika.4 Indonesia also produces and Excelsa coffee types Liberika but the amount is insignificant when compared to arabica and robusta.

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